HAN JISHENG

Han Jisheng, male, Han nationality, is a native of Xiaoshan, Zhejiang Province. He graduated from the Shanghai Medical Institute. Han is a professor at the Medical Department of Beijing University, and he serves as director of the Nerve Science Institute. Han has had a distinguished career in the study of acupuncture and its effects on the body and mind. He has devoted himself to the study of the acupuncture analgesia mechanism since 1965. He was the first to describe the time-space distribution pattern of analgesia due to an acupunctured acupoint on the human body. Han also proved that the secretion of abirritate chemicals by the nervous system, including hydroxyl tryptamine and endorphin, is stimulated by acupuncture. He found that specific NPY may be released in the human brain by stimulating acupoints with electricity, when the frequency is carefully adjusted. However, he also found that if the stimulation lasts for more than 2 hours, anti-analgesia chemicals, such as CCK, would be secreted in the brain. He proposed that the effect of acupuncture relies on the amounts of analgesia and anti-analgesia chemicals in addition to the relative balance between both kinds of chemicals. A nerve stimulator developed based on the principle delivers the effect of analgesia and anti-spasm, and may be used to cure the diacetylmorphine habituation. Han Jisheng was elected an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1993.

Articles

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 [DUAL CONTROL OF ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA BY CENTRAL 5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE AND MORPHINE-LIKE  SUBSTANCE]. HAN JS ET AL. nat med j china. 1978;58:721-25 (chi*).
 
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 ACUPUNCTURE TOLERANCE IN RATS : ANTI-OPIATE SUBSTRATES IMPLICATED. HAN JISHENG ET AL. chinese medical journal. 1979;92(9):625-7 (eng).
 
 3- gera: 15459/di/ra
 [ROLE DE CATECHOLAMINES CENTRALES DANS L’ANALGESIE PAR ACUPUNCTURE]. HAN JISHENG ET AL. chinese medical journal. 1979;92(11):793-800 (eng).
 
 4- gera: 26345/di/ra
 [STUDY OF CENTRAL NORPINEPHRINE TURNOVER RATE DURING ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA IN THE RAT]. HAN JS ET AL. acta physiol sin. 1979;31:11-19 (chi*).
 
 5- gera: 3404/di/cg
 [ROLE DE QUELQUES NEUROTRANSMETTEURS CENTRAUX EN ANALGESIE PAR ACUPUNCTURE]. HAN JISHENG. advances in acupuncture and acupuncture anaesthesia,beijing. 1980;:27 (eng).
 
 
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 THE STUDY OF TURNOVER RATE OF CNS NOREPINEPHRINE DURING ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA IN THE RAT. HAN JISHENG ET AL. advances in acupuncture and acupuncture anaesthesia,beijing. 1980;:452 (eng).
 
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 SEROTONIN (5-HT), OPIATE-LIKE SUBSTANCE (OLS) AND ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA (AA). HAN JISHENG ET AL. advances in acupuncture and acupuncture anaesthesia,beijing. 1980;:487 (eng).
 
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 ACUPUNCTURE TOLERANCE : THE ROLE OF ENDOGENOUS ANTI-OPIATE SUBSTANCES (AOS). HAN JISHENG ET AL. advances in acupuncture and acupuncture anaesthesia,beijing. 1980;:490 (eng).
 
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 CENTRAL NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA. HAN JS ET AL. american journal of chinese medicine. 1980;8(4):331-48 (eng).
 The role played by central neurotransmitters in acupuncture analgesia was evaluated by correlating neurochemical changes in central nervous system with the acupuncture effect, as well as modification of the acupuncture effects by pharmacological manipulations of central neurotransmitters. The results of experimental studies which were performed mainly on rats and rabbits indicated that central serotonin and endogenous opiate- like substances (OLS) seem to be the most important substrates for mediation of acupuncture analgesia while central catecholamines, especially norepinephrine through alpha receptors, may exert an antagonistic effect. It was also found that prolonged and repeated acupuncture resulted in a gradual decrease of the acupuncture effects. The development of some endogenous anti-opiate substrates (AOS) in central nervous system was
 
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 TOLERANCE TO ELECTROACUPUNCTURE AND ITS CROSS TOLERANCE TO MORPHINE. HAN JS ET AL. neuropharmacology. 1981;20(6):593-6 (eng).
 
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 CENTRAL NOREPINEPHRINE : ITS IMPLICATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACUPUNCTURE TOLERANCE. HAN JS ET AL. in takagi m et al advances in exogenous and endogenous opioids, kodansha tokyo:. 1981;:303-5 (eng).
 
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 [POTENTIATION OF ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA BY D-PHENYLALANINE IN THE RABBIT]. HAN JS ET AL. acta zool sin. 1981;27:133-37 (chi*).
 Voir réf gera [26429].
 
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 [TOLERANCE A L’ANALGESIE PAR ELECTRO-ACUPUNCTURE ET SA TOLERANCE CROISEE AVEC MORPHINE]. HAN JISHENG. acupuncture research. 1982;7(3):163 (chi*).
 L’analgésie par acupuncture dépend d’un certain nombre de déterminant parmi lesquels la durée de la stimulation est un élement important. On observe une période d’induction pour l’établissement de l’analgésie puis persistance de l’analgésie en plateau pour une certaine période, puis diminution de l’effet analgésique (tolérance). Revue générale sur cette période de tolérance. 1) L’étude de la période de tolérance permet une meilleure compréhension du mécanisme de l’électro-acupuncture : la tolérance croisée entre EA et analgésie par morphine implique une participation du systéme opioïde. Inversement cette tolérance croisée est incomplete et suggère la participation d’un systéme non opioïde. 2) Compréhension du mécanisme de la tolérance : une stimulation de longue durée augmente le taux de NE cérébrales et substances anti-opiacées qui antagonisent l’EA de même que l’on observe une diminution de l’action des endorphines, des 5HT, et NE médullaires qui facilitent l’EA. 3) Sur le plan pratique des mesures suceptibles de prévenir la tolérance renforceront l’analgésie
 
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 ENKEPHALIN AND B-ENDORPHIN AS MEDIATORS OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA IN RABBITS : AN ANTISERUM MICROINJECTION STUDY. HAN JS ET AL. adv biochem psychopharmacol. 1982;33:369-77 (eng).
 
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 NEUROCHEMICAL BASIS OF ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA. HAN JS ET AL. annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 1982;22:193-220 (eng).
 
 
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 CENTRAL ENKEPHALINS AND ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA. HAN JISHENG ET AL. second national symposium on acupuncture and moxibustion,beijing. 1984;:395 (eng).
 
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 DYNORPHIN HAS A POTENT ANALGESIC ACTION AND MEDIATES ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA IN THE SPINAL CORD OF THE RABBIT. HAN JISHENG ET AL. second national symposium on acupuncture and moxibustion,beijing. 1984;:397 (eng).
 
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 TOLERANCE TO ELECTRO-ACUPUNCTURE AND ITS CROSS TOLERANCE TO MORPHINE IN THE RAT. HAN JISHENG ET AL. in acupuncture research,institute of medical information,beijing. 1984;:129 (eng).
 
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 ACUPUNCTURE MECHANISMS IN RABBITS STUDIED WITH MICROINJECTION OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST ß- ENDORPHIN, ENKEPHALIN AND SUBSTANCE P. HAN JS ET AL. neuropharmacology. 1984;23(1):1-5 (eng).
 Injection or protein-A purified antibodies against Met-enkephalin and ß-endorphin into the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) was shown to decrease the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture (EA) in rabbits. Met-enkephalin antibodies were more potent than the ß-endorphin antibodies in causing a statistically-significant effect on electroacupuncture analgesia. Antibodies to Met-enkephalin were also active at the spinal level, whereas antibodies against ß-endorphin were without effect : this is in agreement with a rich enkephalinergic innervation and absence of ß-endorphin-containing fibres in the spinal cord. Substance P, the other neuropeptide of this study, also seems to be important in mediating effects of electroacupuncture. Injection of antibodies into the periaqueductal gray caused decrease of the effect of electroacupuncture whereas intrathecal administration of Fab-fragment substance P antibodies caused a marked potentiation. The demonstration of site specificity of the neuropeptides in mediating analgesia induced by electroacupuncture supports the validity of this experimental
 
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 DYNORPHIN : IMPORTANT MEDIATOR FOR ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA IN THE SPINAL CORD OF THE RABBIT. HAN JS ET AL. pain. 1984;19:367-76 (eng).
 Intrathecal injection of 12 nmol of dynorphin elicited marked analgesia as measured by tail flick latency, the effect being about 20 times more potent than with morphine. This analgesic effect could be reversed by naloxone at a dose 1.5 fold higher than that needed to reverse morphine analgesia. Intrathecal injection of anti-dynorphin antibody blocked electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia by 77% the effect lasting for at least 4 h. In rabbits made tolerant to EA analgesia by long-term EA stimulation, intrathecal injection of dynorphin no longer exhibited an analgesic effect. No analgesia was noticed when dynorphin ( 10 nmol) was injected into the periaqueductaI grey (PAG) of the rabbit, nor was EA analgesia blocked by anti-dynorphin antibody injected into PAG. These results suggest that dynorphin reduces nocifensive responses in the spinal cord and may play an important role in
 
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 MET-ENKEPHALIN-ARG 6-PHE 7-LIKE IMMUNOREACTIVE SUBSTANCES MEDIATES ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA IN THE PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY OF RABBIT. HAN JS ET AL. brain research. 1984;322:289-96 (eng).
 
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 PROGRESS IN THE PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA. HAN JS IN PATON SW ET AL. proceedings iuphar ninth international congress of pharmacology macmillan : london. 1984;1:387-94 (eng).
 
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 ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA [LETTER]. HAN JS. pain. 1985;21(3):307-10 (eng).
 
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 IS CHOLECYSTOKININ OCTAPEPTIDE (CCK-8) A CANDIDATE FOR ENDOGENOUS ANTI-OPIOID SUBSTRATES ?. HAN JS ET AL. neuropeptides. 1985;5(4-6):399-402 (eng).
 
 
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 I MECCANISMI D’AZIONE DELL’ANALGESIA CON AGOPUNTURA. HAN JISHENG. orientamenti mtc. 1986;3:208-23 (ita).
 
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 ROLE OF CENTRAL NEUROTRANSMITTERS IN ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA. HAN JISHENG ET AL. in research on acupuncture,moxibustion and acupuncture anesthesia,beijing. 1986;:241-255 (eng).
 
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 CENTRAL 5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE, OPIATE-LIKE SUBSTANCES AND ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA. HAN JISHENG ET AL. in research on acupuncture,moxibustion and acupuncture anesthesia,beijing. 1986;:309-316 (eng).
 
 28- gera: 2395/di/re
 ELECTROACUPUNCTURE : AN ALTERNATIVE TO ANTIDEPRESSANTS FOR TREATING AFFECTIVE DISEASES ?. HAN JS. internation j neuroscience. 1986;29(1-2):79-92 (eng).
 The monoamine hypothesis for affective disorders indicates a functional impairment of the monoamine systems in NS as the causative factor for the development of depression. Pharmacological manipulations of the monoaminergic neuronal system using tricyclics and monoamine oxidase inhibitors produced promising therapeutic effects as well as certain unwanted side effects which urged the search of a physiological means to activate the central monoamine systems. In the present paper, evidence from animal experiments is presented to show that acupuncture or electroacupuncture (EA) is capable of accelerating the synthesis and release of serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) in the CNS. Clinical data indicate that EA is effective in treating depressive patients, and at least as effective and with a higher therapeutic index than tricyclic amitriptyline.
 
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 CHOLECYSTOKININ OCTAPEPTIDE (CCK-8) : ANTAGONISM TO ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA AND A POSSIBLE ROLE IN ELECTROACUPUNCTURE TOLERANCE. HAN JS ET AL. pain. 1986;27(1):101-15 (eng).
 The analgesic effect produced by electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation in the rat was dose-dependently antagonized by cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.th) at a dose range of 0. 25-4 ng. This effect had an immediate onset and lasted for at least 4 h. CCK-8 per se, however, did not affect baseline tail flick latency. Rats subjected to prolonged EA stimulation developed EA tolerance as well as cross-tolerance to morphine. These tolerances could be postponed or reversed by i.c.v. or i.th injection of antiserum against CCK-8. While CCK-8 antagonized opioid analgesia, it did not affect analgesia induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or norepinephrine (NE). Moreover. CCK-8 antiserum did not alter the basic level of nociception, nor did it potentiate EA analgesia in naive rats. It is concluded that prolonged EA stimulation results in a profound release of opioids which may trigger the release of CCK-8 in the central nervous system to counteract the opioid component Of EA analgesia.
 
30- gera: 26689/di/el
 ANTIBODY MICROINJECTION A NEW APPROACH FOR STUDYING THE FUNCTIONS OF NEUROPEPTIDES. HAN JI-SHENG. in han js, the neurochemical basis of pain relief by acupuncture, beijing. 1987;:323-328 (eng).
 Reproduction du Chinese Medical Journal.
 
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 THE EFFECT OF SPINAL TRANSECTION ON ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA AND MORPHINE ANALGESIA. HAN JISHENG ET AL. in han js, neurochemical basis of pain relief by acupuncture, beijing. 1987;:67. (eng).
 
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 THE ROLE OF CENTRAL CATECHOLAMINE IN ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA. HAN JISHENG ET AL. in han js, the neurochemical basis of pain relief by acupuncture, beijing. 1987;:114-121 (eng).
 Reproduction de Chin Med J , 1979, 92, 793-
00.
 
33- gera: 26429/di/el
 AUGMENTATION OF ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA BY PEPTIDASE INHIBITOR D-PHENYLALANINE IN RABBITS. HAN JISHENG ET AL. in han js, the neurochemical basis of pain relief by acupuncture, beijing. 1987;:219. (eng).
 Reproduction de Acta Zoologica Sinica 27 (2) : 133-137, 1981.
 
34- gera: 26445/di/el
 CENTRAL 5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE, OPIATE-LIKE SUBSTANCES AND ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA. HAN JISHENG ET AL. in han js, the neurochemical basis of pain relief by acupuncture, beijing. 1987;:286-90 (eng).
 Résumé de Acupuncture Research, 1980, 5, 39-43.
 
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 TOLERANCE TO ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA AND ITS CROSS TOLERANCE TO MORPHINE. HAN JISHENG ET AL. in han js, the neurochemical basis of pain relief by acupuncture, beijing. 1987;:361-372 (eng).
 Reproduction de l’article paru dans Acupunct Research 7(3) : 163-174, 1982.
 
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 ACUPUNCTURE TOLERANCE IN RATS./ANTI-OPIATE SUBSTRATES IMPLICATED. HAN JISHENG ET AL. in han js, the neurochemical basis of pain relief by acupuncture, beijing. 1987;:373. (eng).
 Reproduction de l’article paru dans Chinese Medical Journal 92 (9) : 625-627, 1979.
 
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 [THE FREQUENCY AS THE CARDINAL DETERMINANT FOR ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA TO BE REVERSED BY OPIOID ANTAGONISTS]. HAN JI-SHENG ET AL. in han js, the neurochemical basis of pain relief by acupuncture, beijing. 1987;:341. (chi*).
 Résumé de l’article paru dans Beijing Medecine 1(1) : 34-37, 1979.
 
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 ANTIBODY MICROINJECTION : A NEW APPROACH FOR STUDYING THE FUNCTIONS OF NEUROPEPTIDES. HAN JS. chinese medical journal. 1987;100(6):459-64 (eng).
 Following the rapid progress in molecular biology, we are moving from the period of "one peptide a year" to a period of "one peptide a day". To cope with the rapid emergence of novel biologically active peptides, new techniques are needed to clarify their physiological functions. Evidence is presented here to show that antibody microinjection is a rapid and reliable method to evaluate the functions of endogenously released peptides. It is especially useful when no specific receptor antagonist is yet available for pharmacological study. 

 The neurochemical basis of pain relief by acupuncture. A collection of papers 1973-1987. Beijing: Beijing Medical University. 1987. 597P. [gera:23772].
39- gera: 23772/di/tt
 THE NEUROCHEMICAL BASIS OF PAIN RELIEF BY ACUPUNCTURE. HAN JS. beijing. 1987;:597P (eng).
 This text offers over 120 research papers concerning the neurochemical investigations of the author and his associates in China from the 1950’s to the present. Dr. Han is head of the Department of Physiology at Beijing Medical University and is China’s leading investigator in the field. He has presented his work to many research institutions in the West. All the studies concern neurochemical investigations and the majority have been translated into English, though a few offer only English abstracts. This work is a special purpose communication for thoseinterested in this level of acupuncture research. [Redwing Reviews, June, 1995].
 
40- gera: 26438/di/el
 CANCER PAIN AMELIORATED BY INTRATHECAL INJECTION OF DYNORPHIN A-(1-13)-AMIDE. HAN JS ET AL. in han js, the neurochemical basis of pain relief by acupuncture, beijing. 1987;:261-262 (eng).
 Résumé de l’article paru dans Journal of Beijing Medical University 18 (2) : 111-112, 1986.
 
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 CHOLECYSTOKININ OCTAPEPTIDE (CCK-8) : ANTAGONISM TO ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA AND A POSSIBLE ROLE IN ELECTROACUPUNCTURE TOLERANCE. HAN JS ET AL. in han js, the neurochemical basis of pain relief by acupuncture, beijing. 1987;:394-408 (eng).
 Reproduction de l’article paru dans Pain , 27 (1) : 101-115, 1986.
 
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 CHOLECYTOKININ (CCK-8) ANTAGONIZES MORPHINE ANALGESIA IN PERIAQUEDUCTAL GREY (PAG) OF THE RAT. HAN JS ET AL. in han js, the neurochemical basis of pain relief by acupuncture, beijing. 1987;:409. (eng).
 Résumé de l’article paru dans Journal of Beijing Medical College 12 (1) : 69-70, 1980.
 
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 CENTRAL NOREPINEPHRINE : ITS IMPLICATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACUPUNCTURE TOLERANCE. HAN JS ET AL. in han js, the neurochemical basis of pain relief by acupuncture, beijing. 1987;:431-433 (eng).
 Reproduction de l’article paru dans Advances in Endogenous and Exogenous Opioids Proceding of the International Narcotic Research Conference, Toky, 1981, p 303-305.
 
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 A MESOLIMBIC LOOP OF ANALGESIA III. A NEURONAL PATHWAY FROM NUCLEOUS ACCUMBENS TO PERIAQUEDUCTAL GREY. HAN JS ET AL. in han js, the neurochemical basis of pain relief by acupuncture, beijing. 1987;:461-466 (eng).
 Reproduction de l’article paru dans Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 1986;, 1 : 17-22.
 
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 [RECENT PROGRESS IN THE STUDY OF ACUPUNCTURE MECHANISMS]. HAN JS. acupuncture research. 1988;13(1):37-44 (eng ).
 
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 CENTRAL NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA. HAN JS. in pomeranz b et al, scientific bases of acupuncture, springer-verlag. 1989;:7-33 (eng).
 In the present review some classical neurotransmitters and some neuropeptides in the CNS for mediating AA have been discussed. Some of them play a facilitatory role, while others are antagonistic. The overall effect of AA thus depends on a dynamic balance between the opposing factors at different levels of the CNS. Various neuronal pathways in the CNS are involved in transmitting the signals triggered by the acupuncture stimulation and in activating the endogenous analgesia system for suppressing nociceptive pathways . A descending inhibitory control from the PAG to the spinal cord dorsal horn neurons has already been well-defined . Recently, a neuronal circuitry in the brain has been characterized which is Very important for mediating AA and morphine analgesia. It is a neuronal loop involving the PAG, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and habenula, as well as the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. It has been tentatively termed "the meso-limbic loop of analgesia", details of which have been described else- where and summarized in a review article which will appear in the Advances in Pain Research and Therapy series. The scope of the present article is limited to the central neurotransmitters in AA. However, the implication of intracellular events such as calcium and cyclic nucleotides in AA and EA tolerance are certainly of great importance. For more detailed information the readers are referred to a monograph published in English covering most of the studies from this laboratory in the field of pain research.
 
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 [DU HUO JI SHENG DECOCTION FOR RHEUMATISM]. HAN JS. shaanxi traditional chinese medicine. 1989;10(3):110. (chi).
 
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 MECHANISM UNDERLYING THE ANTAGONISM OF OPIOID ANALGESIA AND ACCELERATION OF OPIOID TOLERANCE BY CCK-8. (abstract). HAN JISHENG. acupuncture research. 1991;16(3-4):228 (eng).
 
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 ARCUATE NUCLEUS (ARH) AND PARABRACHIAL NUCLEUS (PBN) MEDIATE LOW AND HIGH-FREQUENCY ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA. (abstract). HAN JISHENG ET AL. acupuncture research. 1991;16(3-4):181 (eng).
 Systemic studies performed in our laboratory have led to the conclusion that low frequency (2Hz) electroacupuncture (EA) accelerated the release of enkephalin in the spinal cord, whereas high frequency (100Hz) EA increased the release of dynorphin. This conclusion which was mainly based on experiments on rats has recently been confirmed in humans. The aim of the present study was to find out brain areas (centers) which would receive low- or high- frequency inputs and to transfer the relevant signals to neurons containing enkephalin or dynorphin respectively. Experiments in rats revealed that ablation of the telencephalon and diencephalon, or selective lesioning of the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus (ARH) abolished low frequency EA analgesia (LEAA) but not high frequency EAA (HEAA). On the contrary, electrolytic or kainate lesion of the PBN of the pons led to serious attenuation of HEAA without affecting LEAA. In animals subjected to kainate lesion of the ventral periaqueductal gray (VPAG), neither LEAA nor HEAA was functioning. However, microinjection of beta-endorphin (beta-EP) antiserum into vPAG only abolished LEAA but not HEAA. In addition, strong analgesia could be elicited by direct electrical simulation of either ARH or PBN, the optimal frequencies being 1:8, respectively. In rats made tolerant to LEAA by 6hr continuous EA stimulation, there was a cross tolerance toward ARH stimulation induced analgesia, and vice versa. Cross tolerance was also existing between HEAA and PBN stimulation produced analgesia. These results indicate that: (l) Signals induced by 2Hz EA reach ARH to activate beta-EP neurons which innervate vPAG whereby descending pathway originated to release enkephalins in the spinal cord. (2) High frequency signals arrive PBN which innervate vPAG whereby descending pathway originated to release dynorphins
 
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 EFFECT OF LOW-AND HIGH-FREQUENCY TENS ON MET-ENKEPHALIN-ARG-PHE AND DYNORPHIN A IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN HUMAN LUMBAR CSF. HAN JS ET AL. pain. 1991;47(3):295-8 (eng).
 Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) treatment was given for 30 min to 37 patients divided into 3 groups of 10 patients and 1 group of 7 patients. Two Groups received low-frequency (2 Hz) and the other groups high- frequency (100 Hz) stimulation. A diagnostic lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample was obtained immediately before and after stimulation. The CSF samples were subjected to analysis of immunoreactive (ir) opioid peptides, Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe (MEAP) from preproenkephalin and dynorphin A (Dyn A) from preprodynorphin, respectively. Low frequency TENS applied on the hand and the leg resulted in a marked increase (367%, P < 0.05) of ir-MEAP but not ir-Dyn A. whereas high-frequency (100) Hz) TENS produced a 49 % increase in ir-Dyn A (P < 0.01) but not ir-MEAP. This is the first report in humans that 2 Hz and 100 Hz peripheral stimulation induces differential release of peptides from preproenkephalin and preprodynorphin. respectively.
 
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 EFFECT OF LOW-AND HIGH-FREQUENCY TENS ON MET-ENKEPHALIN-ARG-PHE AND DYNORPHIN A IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN HUMAN LUMBAR CSF. HAN JS ET AL. pain. 1991;47(3):295-8 (eng).
 Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) treatment was given for 30 min to 37 patients divided into 3 groups of 10 patients and 1 group of 7 patients. Two groups received low-frequency (2 Hz) and the other 2 groups high- frequency (100 Hz) stimulation. A diagnostic lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample was obtained immediately before and after stimulation. The CSF samples were subjected to analysis of immunoreactive (ir) opioid peptides, Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe (MEAP) from preproenkephalin and dynorphin A (Dyn A) from preprodynorphin, respectively. Low frequency TENS applied on the hand and the leg resulted in a marked increase (367%, P < 0. 05) of ir-MEAP but not ir-Dyn A, whereas high-frequency (100 Hz) TENS produced a 49% increase in ir-Dyn A (P < 0. 01) but not ir-MEAP. This is the first report in humans that 2 Hz and 100 Hz peripheral stimulation induces differential release of peptides from preproenkephalin and preprodynorphin, respectively.
 
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 MOBILIZATION OF SPECIFIC NEUROPEPTIDES BY PERIPHERAL STIMULATION OF IDENTIFIED FREQUENCIES. HAN JISHENG ET AL. news physiol sci. 1992;7:176-80 (eng).
 
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 SUPPRESSION OF MORPHINE ABSTINENCE SYNDROME BY BODY ELECTROACUPUNCTURE OF DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES IN RATS. HAN JS ET AL. drug alcohol dependence. 1993;31(2):169-75 (eng).
 The effectiveness of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation in suppressing the morphine abstinence syndrome was studied. Male Wistar rats were made dependent on morphine either by multiple injections or pellet implantation. EA of 2 Hz or 100 Hs was administered for 30 min followed by naloxone challenge (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) and the withdrawal sydrome was scored for a period of 45 min. In rats receiving multiple injection regime, 100-HZ EA produced a statistically significant suppression of wet shakes (-61 %), teech chattering (-59 %), escape attempts (-48 %), weight loss (-3,3 %) and penile licking (-28 %) (p<0.05). EA of 2 Hz produced only a mild but significant suppression in escape attempts (-42 %) and wet shakes (-31 %). Similar results were obtained in rats receiving pellet implantation. Since 100-Hz EA has been shown to accelerate the release of dynorphins in the CNS, the results seem to be compatible with the notion that dynorphin may play an important role in suppressing the opioid
 
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 SOME FACTORS AFFECTING ACUPUNCTURE-INDUCED ANALGESIA (abstract). HAN JISHENG. acupuncture research. 1994;19(3-4):1-3 (eng).
 
 55- gera: 53814/di/ra
 TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE STIMULATION FOR TREATMENT OF SPINAL SPASTICITY. HAN JI-SHENG ET AL. chinese medical journal. 1994;107(1):6-11 (eng*).
 Thirty-two patients with spinally originated muscle spasticity were treated with a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator, the Han’s acupoint nerve stimulator (HANS) via skin electrodes placed over the acupoints on the hand and leg. High frequency (100 Hz), but not the low frequency (2 Hz), stimulation was effective in ameliorating muscle spasticity. While the therapeutic effect lasted for only 10 minutes in the first treatment, it became consolidated after consecutive daily treatment for 3 months. The anti-spastic effect induced by high frequency electrical stimulation can be partially reversed by a high dose of naloxone. The results suggest that the antispastic effect elicited by peripheral electrical stimulation is mediated, at least in part, by the endogenous opioid ligand interacting with the kappa opiate receptors, most probably dynorphin, in the central nervous system.
 
56- gera: 86843/di/re
 HEROINE ADDICTS TREATED WITH TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF IDENTIFIED FREQUENCIES. HAN JS ET AL. regulatory peptide. 1994;54:115-6 (eng).
 A specia
type of TENS device, the Han’s