MANUSCRITS MÉDICAUX DE DUNHUANG


Bencao jizhu, édition de Dunhuang.

Les manuscrits de Dunhang sont un ensemble découvert dans les grottes de Dunghuang (dont la plus célèbre est Mogao) dans la province du Guansu. Dunhuang était une cité importante sur la Route de la Soie et un point d’ échanges entre la Chine et le monde extérieur. Ces manuscrits paraissent être des élements de la bibliothèque d’un monastère bouddhique local. La plus grande partie des manuscrits a été acquise en 1907 par l’archéologue anglais Aurel Stein et sa collection est principalement à la British Library. Quelques années après le sinologue français Paul Pelliot  a récupéré la partie restante des manuscrits qui sont répartis entre la Bibliothèque Nationale de France et le musée Guimet. Quelques manuscrits originaires des grottes de Dunhuang ont également été identifiés au Japon (Ryukoku University Library) et en Russie (St-Petersbourg).
83 manuscrits médicaux des dynasties Sui et Tang (541-845) sont ainsi répertoriés. L’importance de ces manuscrits est considérable dans l’optique d’une approche historique de la médecine chinoise et pour l’histoire de la médecine dans son ensemble.
L’étude de ces manuscrits fait l’objet d’un projet international : International Dunhuang Project (IDP).

Médecine, société et religion dans la Chine médiévale Manuscrits de Dunhuang et pratiques de santé. Programme de recherche dirigé dans le cadre de l’Unité Mixte de Recherche UMR 8155 ‘Civilisations chinoise, japonaise et tibétaine’ Catherine Despeux (Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales).


 
Spécialistes des manuscrits médicaux de Dunhuang
Zhao Jianxiong

 


articles
 


Medieval Chinese Medicine: The Dunhuang Medical Manuscripts. Lo V et Cullen C. London : RoutledgeCurzon; 2005.

Medieval Chinese Medicine: The Dunhuang Medical Manuscripts.
Lo V et Cullen C. London : RoutledgeCurzon; 2005.

 

Un manuscrit médical chinois ancien conservé à Saint-Petersbourg.  Franzini S. Journal asiatique  1993;281(1-2):211-224.
Les trois fragments du manuscrit provenant du Nord de la Chine (Dunhuang ou Turfan) trancrits, traduits et analysés dans cet article constituent un document de technique médicale exposant une série de points d’acupuncture. D’après le style de l’écriture, il a été daté du 5e s. apr. J.-C., devenant ainsi le plus ancien témoin écrit sur ce sujet.
 

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 [BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF DUNHUANG MEDICAL WORKS]. ZHU DINGHUA ET AL. journal of tcm. 1986;27(4):57-9 (chi).

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 [A LIST OF MEDICAL WORKS OF DUNHUANG CAVES]. WANG JINYU. chinese journal of medical history. 1987;17(1):51-9 (chi).

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 [PRELIMINARY EXPLORATION ON MYSTERY CLASSIC OF PULSES FROM DUNHUANG CROTTOS]. WANG SHUMIN. shanghai journal of tcm. 1987;8:35 (chi).

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 [A SURVEY ON MEDICAL LITERATURES OF DUNHUANG CAVES]. WANG SHUMIN ET AL. shanghai journal of tcm. 1987;1:42 (chi).

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 [FRESCOS OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH IN DUNHUANG GROTTOES]. WANG JINYU. knowledge of ancient medical literature. 1990;2:23-6 (chi).

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 [ANCIENT MEDICAL PRESCRIPTIONS IN DUNHUANG GROTTOES]. WANG JINYU. knowledge of ancient medical literature. 1990;4:27-8 (chi).

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 [ANTIINFLUENZA VIRUS EFFECT OF DUNHUANG AIR CLEANING AGENT]. YANG JICHENG ET AL. china journal of chinese materia medica. 1990;15(5):30. (chi*).

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 DISCUSSION ON CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SOME ANCIENT POINT RECORDED IN DUNHUANG SUTRA. ZHANG NONG. 2eme congres mondial d’acupuncture et moxibustion, paris. 1990;:212. (eng).

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 [FROM RELICS OF DUNHUANG TO SEE WESTWARD SPREAD OF MEDICAL CULTURE IN HAN DYNASTY]. FAN XINJUN. shanghai journal of traditional chinese medicine. 1991;1:36-7 (chi).

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 [HISTORICAL DATA OF MEDICINE IN DUNHUANG FRESCOES]. FAN XINJUN. shanghai journal of traditional chinese medicine. 1991;11:40 (chi).

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 [EXTRAORDINARY THERAPIES OF TCM FOUND IN DUNHUANG GROTTOS AND BATH MEDICATED WINE]. JIA YI. shanghai journal of traditional chinese medicine. 1991;9:43 (chi).

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 [A RE-DISCOVERY AFTER NEIJING’S ANCIENT DIAGNOSTICS BEING FOUND IN FRAGMENT SCROLL OF DUNHUANG GROTTO]. MA JIXING. shanghai journal of traditional chinese medicine. 1991;5:38 (chi).

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 [THE FIRST DISCOVERY OF A TANG MANUSCRIPT FROM DUNHUANG, A SCROLL OF SIMPLE AND EFFECTIVE PRESCRIPTIONS FOR EMERGENCY, COLLECTED IN THE BRITISH LIBRARY]. WANG JI-QING. chinese journal of medical history. 1991;21(2):71 (chi*).
 The title of two Dunhuang Ms. fragments, sometimes just called ‘Unknown Recipe’ in the British Library (S. 3347, S.3395), forming parts of one single medical manuscript of the Tang Dynasty, has remained undefined for a long time. In 1989, the author discovered two unpublished fragments of the same Dunhuang Manuscript (S.9987. FRONT., S.9987. BACK. 2.) in the Oriental Collections, the British Library. One of the newly discovered fragments (S.9987. BACK.Z.) gave the title of the whole manuscript, « A Scroll of Simple and Effective Prescriptions for Emergency », thus eventually solved the denomination problem of all these four fragments of the same manuscript. Texts of these fragments are copied and published here for further studies.
 
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 [INVESTIGATION ON AUXILIARY PROSE FOR ESSENTIALS OF VISCERAL MEDICATION LISTED IN DUNHUANG SCROLLS]. WANG SHUMIN. shanghai journal of traditional chinese medicine. 1991;3:36 (chi).

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 [INTENTION OF QIGONG ON IMAGES OF BUDDHIST MEDITATION IN DUNHUANG FRESCO]. MA ZHOUZHOU. shanghai journal of traditional chinese medicine. 1992;3:44 (chi).

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 [ON THE SIGNIFICANCE OF DUNHUANGOLOGICAL MEDICINE]. TAN ZHEN. chinese journal of medical history. 1992;22(4):224 (chi*).
 By Dunhuang medicine, it refers to the paintings for medical activities from the murals. and remained medical literature’s, of which the time limit ranges from Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty to Song-Yuan Dynasties. This is an important integral part of Chinese cultural and medical history, Most of the literature’s are rare manuscripts, while the paintings reflect the sketch of medical and hygienic activities of the Sui-Tang Dynasties. Since the grottoes in Dunhuang for keeping the ancient scrolls were sealed no later than 1097 AD, it gives definite evidences for the solution of debates on the dates of writing of the ancient medical works.
 
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 [ACADEMIC VALUE OF ACUPUNCTURE/MOXIBUSTION LITERATURE FOUND IN DUNHUANG GROTTO]. CONG CHUNYU. shanghai journal of traditional chinese medicine. 1993;10:41 (chi).

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 [RECOGNITION, TREATMMENT AND PREVENTION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN SUI AND TANG DYNASTIES RECORDED IN DUNHUANG SCROLLS]. FAN XINJUN. shanghai journal of traditional chinese medicine. 1993;6:30 (chi).

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 [COOKERY OF « FAIRY CONGEE » FOUND AT DEPOSITORY OF CLASSICS IN DUNHUANG GROTTOS AND ITS DIETOTHERAPEUTIC VALUE]. WANG JINYU. shanghai journal of traditional chinese medicine. 1993;11:36 (chi).

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 [HOMOGENY OF MEDICAL RECIPES FROM LONGMEN GROTTOES AND BEI JI DAN YAN YAOFANG JUAN IN DUNHUANG SCROLLS]. ZHANG RUIXIAN ET AL. chinese journal of medical history. 1998;28(2):113 (chi*).
 Carved during the Xianqing reign of Gaozhong in early Tang Dynasty, the medical recipes from Longmen Grottoes didn’t give the source of its literatures cited, which is a puzzle for thousand of years. Through exploration on medical texts published before the Song Dynasty, clues are found from Dunhuang medical scrolls. It is discovered that Longmen Recipes reveal homogeneity with S9987, S3347, S3395 from Dunhuang scroll, or, in other words, it shares the same origin with Bei-ji-dan-yan-yao-fang.
 
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 [ON APPLICATION OF ANCIENT MEDICAL RECIPES OF DUNHUANG BOOK RELICS IN EXTERNAL CONG CHUNYU. shanghai journal of tcm. 1999;1:34 (chi*).
 In the ancient medical recipes discovered in Dunhuang, there were a large number of Chinese medical external therapies and their representative herbal formulas, such as the funigaring-steaning method, the coating method, the pasting method, the ironing method, the stuffing method, the filling method, the nosepouring method, the gargling method, and the internal drug recipes. There were different features in the different methods.
 
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 [UNEARTHED ANCIENT CHINESE MEDICAL LITERATURES CURRENTLY PRESERVED IN RUSSIA]. MA JIXING. chinese journal of medical history. 1999;29(1):10 (chi*).
 An outline probing an Russian exploration team exploiting the ancient literatural remains existed in the vast north-western region in China was made in this paper for the medical literatures already publicised which are collected at the I leicheng Department of Ayrmita Museum attached to the Petersburg Branch of Oriental Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences. The process of excavation and its collection preserved in the Museum is first dealt with, followed in order by the Museum filed numbers of medical literatures unearthed by the Russians in Dunhuang, Heicheng and Khotan and their hook titles, authors, contents and care.
 
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 [INVESTIGATION ON TWO DUNHUANG MEDICAL PRESCRIPTIONS STORED IN RUSSIAN]. ZHANG RU-QING. shanghai journal of tcm. 2000;34(11):40 (chi*).
 Two Dunhuang medical prescriptions numbered 356V-1 and stored in Russian « Cough Prescription » and « Zhuanzhong Prescription », were studied in form, typeface, contents and the academic siginificance was presented.
 
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 JIAN NAO NING FOR TREATMENT OF MEMORY IMPAIRMENT IN PATIENTS WITH MILD OR MODERATE MULTI-INFARCT DEMENTIA. TIAN JINZHOU, YIN JUNXIANG, LIU HUAN, ET AL .. journal of tcm. 2002;22(4):247 (eng*).
 In order to inquire into the therapeutic effects of Xiao Shi Xiong Huang San qiA–6*jtfA the Nitrum and Realgar Powder), one of the Dunhuang Prescription, on angina pectoris due to coronary heart disease (APCHD), the authors have treated 61 cases of APCHD by externally applying paste of the powder on Zhiyang (GV 9), with another 30 cases of APCHD treated with the nitroglycerin paste on Zhiyang as the controls. The results showed that the total effective rate was 82% and markedly effective rate 31.2% in the treatment group (the Paste of Nitrum and Realgar Powder), and the total effective rate was 46.6% and markedly effective rate 23.2% in the control group (the nitroglycerin paste). The difference in therapeutic effects between the two groups was very significant (P<0.01) , indicating that the therapeutic effect of the former was significantly superior to that of the latter.
 
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 [DISTINGUISHING FEATURE OF MOXIBUSTION METHOD IN DUNHUANG MEDICINE]. ZHANG NONG. chinese acupuncture and moxibustion. 2002;21(9):563 (chi*).
 In Chinese Middle Ages’ documents from Confucian Classics-Collecting Cave in Mogaoku of Dunhuang, Ganshu Province there are hand-written medical books of Tang and Song Dynasties, and among them 20 volumes are related with acupuncture and moxibustion. The Jiu Jing Tu was written by the schools who payed attantion to moxibustion. Moxibustion could be given one thousand cones at the most, 52 ancient acupoints and Suikong , Wuzhou, Tianmen , Nieshu , Hand-Yangming , Banmei,Foot-Yangming ancient acupoint names were preserved. A New Classic of Moxibustion for Emeryencies ( ( 94*2*14-0) is an atlas of acupuncture and moxibustion of Tang dynasty, which was a collection of moxibustion treatment of acute syndromes. In the Za Liao Bing Yaofang moxibustion methods for auricular points were introduced. In the Bu Zhi Ming Yifang, fermented soy-bean cake-separated moxibustion, sulphur powder-separated moxibustion, realgar-separated moxibustion and so on were introduced, developing Ge Hong’s materials-separated moxibustion. It is a valuable medical book of acupuncture and moxibustion.
 
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 [APPROACH TO CHARACTERISTICS AND CLINICAL VALUES OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS OF MOXIBUSTION IN DUNHUANG CAVES ]. WANG TIANSHENG . chinese acupuncture and moxibustion. 2003;23(11):690 (chi*).

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 MEDIEVAL CHINESE MEDICINE- DUNHUANG MEDICAL MANUSCRIPTS Lo V, Cullen C. routledgecurzon, london. 2004;:472P (eng).
 ISBN: 0-415342-95-3 The primary sources for this text come from a collection of medieval manuscripts discovered in 1900 in a walled-up room in the Buddhist cave-shrines of Dunhuang, Gansu Province, west China. Dunhuang was formerly an important Silk Road town, and formed the base of one of the first garrisons to be established during the Han period to secure the safe passage of soldiers, officials and traders between east and west. While the majority of the manuscripts stored in the cave are copies of Buddhist scriptural texts, there are also thousands of non-Buddhist texts, both religious and secular. The presence among these of some one hundred medical texts suggests that the Dunhuang prefectural school was a center for copying and transmitting medical writings. In the collection we find the earliest handwritten copies of well-known classical medical treatises, together with hitherto unknown medical works, including illustrations and charts, texts related to religious and popular healing traditions and extensive portions of texts previously known only through brief quotations in later works. This is the first book to discuss this fascinating material in a western language in the century since the Dunhuang library was discovered. .
 
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 [OVERVIEW OF DUNHUANG ANCIENT MEDICAL PRESCRIPTIONS IN RECENT 20 YEARS]. WANG CHUN-YAN ZHANG RU-QING. acta universitatis traditionis medicalis sinensis pharmacologiaeque. 2004;18(3):61 (chi*).

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 [EXPERIENCE ON CLINICAL APPLICATION OF ACUPOINTS IN THE REMAINED BOOK OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS OF MOXIBUSTION IN DUNHUANG CAVES.]. WANG TIAN-SHENG , LU LAN-PING. chinese acupuncture and moxibustion. 2005;25(5):345 (chi*).
 The Illustrations of Moxibustion , a remained book in Dunhuang Caves, is now available the earliest monograph of moxibustion methods since having writing in our country. In this paper, the points selected and therapeutic methods in The Illustrations of Moxibustion are used for treatment of typical cases of cerebral palsy, rheumatoid arthritis, diarrhea due to gastroenteritis, impotence, premature, diabetes, asthma and so on to explore characteristics of using points, find out the law, test and verify the actual effect and find guiding values for modern clinic, indicating that The Illustrations of Moxibustion can be applied for treatment and rehabilitation of many kinds of refractory diseases with unique therapeutic effects’ and practical significance.
 
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 [PROFESSOR MA JI-XING’S CONTRIBUTION IN THE FIELD OF ACUPUNCTURE AND MOXIBUSTION GUO JS. chinese acupuncture and moxibustion. 2006;26(10):745 (chi*).
 Prof. MA, a famous medical historian and a founder of TCM literature science in our country. He works industriously and in the past over 60 years, he has attained great achievements in the field of acupuncture and moxibustion, and made great contribution to the acupoint science and channel and collateral science, published The Concise Acupuncture and Moxibustion Bone-setting, color teaching hanging chart of The Reference Chart of Anatomic Positions of Stimulating Points for Acupuncture and Moxibustion Therapy, Bronze Acupuncture Figure and Point Location of the Bronze Figure, Textual Criticism of Ancient Medical Books in Dunhuang, Studies on Unearthed Ancient Medical Books No Longer Extant, etc., which have important influences on studies of acupuncture and moxibustion history and acupuncture and moxibustion literature. 
 
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 [PRELIMINARY STUDY ON CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS OF MOXIBUSTION IN DUNHUANG CAVES IN TREATMENT OF 5 KINDS OF STRAIN AND 7 KINDS OF IMPAIR­MENTS]. WANG TIAN-SHENG ,LAN-PING , WANG YONG-QIANG. chinese acupuncture and moxibustion. 2006;26(10):753 (chi).
 The Illustrations of Moxibustion , a remained book in Dunhuang Caves, is available the earliest mono­graph about moxibustion methods with both pictures and writing since recorded writing. In treatment of 5 kinds of strain and 7 kinds of impairments, point association for correspondence between man and universe was adopted hu­man point distribution according to Jiugong and Bagua ; and point association method of viewing the situation as a whole according to humam point distribution on the head, the body and the limbs; it wrote and drew available the earliest naked figures for acupuncture and moxibustion in simple natural materialism; and it is the most reasonable, the most complete explanation of sexual science in Chinese medicine, and is a sample for treatment of 5 kinds of strain and 7 kinds of impairments by ancient physicians stressing moxibustion, with convenient point selection and safety.