MANUSCRITS MÉDICAUX DE MA WANG DUI

20 manuscrits médicaux sur rouleaux de soie ou de bambou découverts en 1973 à Mawangdui (proche de Changsha, Province du Hunan) dans la tombe de Li Gang mort en 186 avant J.C.

 
Traduction anglaise

Harper D. Early Chinese Medical Literature. London: Kegan Paul International; 1998.

Harper D. Early Chinese Medical Literature. London: Kegan Paul International; 1998. 

Articles

La formation historique du système des méridiens : 1) les textes de ma wangdui et leurs interprétations. Nguyen P. Revue Française de MTC. 1987;124:217-226.

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 [TRANSCRIPTION DES MANUSCRITS SUR SOIE DES TRAITES MEDICAUX DECOUVERTS DANS LA TOMBE HAN N°3 A MAWANGTUI]. X. wen wu,chine. 1975;6:1-5 (chi).

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 [LA TRANSCRIPTION DES MANUSCRITS SUR SOIE DES TRAITES MEDICAUX DECOUVERTS DANS LA TOMBE HAN N3 A MAWANGTUI]. X. wen wu,chine. 1975;9:35-48 (chi).

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 MA WANG DUI TOMB THREE DOCUMENTS, THE MEDICAL TEXTS. HARPER DJ. early china. 1976;2:68 (eng).

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 MANUSCRIPTS FOUND RECENTLY IN CHINA. A PRELIMINARY SURVEY. LOEWE MA N. t’oung pao,pays-bas. 1977;2-3:99-136 (eng).
 Depuis 1972 les rapports de fouilles ont repris en Chine, et il est possible de dresser un catalogue des remarquables manuscrits mis au jour (sur bois, bambou, soie ou papier). Le catalogue indique : la nature du support, le nombre de caractères, le site de la découverte. D’autre part, une liste des trouvailles par site est donnée (inscriptions, mobilier funéraire, etc.) thèmes des manuscrits : religion, médecine, astronomie, éducation physique, histoire, textes juridiques, divination, traité sur les chiens.
 
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 THE SILK MANUSCRIPTS ON TAOISM. YUN-HUA J. t’oung pao,pays-bas. 1977;1:65-84 (eng).
 Fouilles de 1973, à Ma-Wang-Tui, Ch’ang-Sha, province du hunan, academia sinica. Tombe n°3. Entre autres objets mis au jour, un coffret de laque contenant des Po-Shu (manuscrits sur soie). 120.000 caractères. Un document permet une datation sûre de la tombe : 168 av. J.-C. (dynastie des Han). Contenu : histoire, philosophie, astrologie, géographie, médecine. Importance de ces manuscrits pour l’histoire du taoïsme. Parmi d’autres manuscrits taoïstes, deux versions de Lao-Tzu, la version A (vers 206 av. J.-C.) écrite en caractères Hsiao-Chuan, la version B ( un peu plus récente) en caractères Li-Shu. Autres textes : des textes qu’on pensait être perdus ( le Ching-Fa, le Shih-Ta Ching, le Tao-Yuan,
 
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 MEDICAL MANUSCRIPTS FOUND IN HAN TOMB NO 3 AT MA-WANG-TUI. AKAHORI A. sudhoffs arch. 1979;63(3):297-301 (eng).

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 THE FORMATION OF THE HUANG-TI NEIJING. YAMADA KEIJI. acta asiatica. 1979;36:67-89 ().
 Article fondamental sur le neijing.
 
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 LEPROSY IN ARCHEOLOGICALLY RECOVERED BAMBOO BOOK IN CHINA. SKINSNES OK. international journal of leprology. 1980;48:333. (eng).
 Traduction anglaise d’un texte sur bambou du IIIème siècle avant JC découvert en 1975. Il s’agit de l’examen médico légal d’un lépreux.
 
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 AN ACCOUNT OF THE COLLECTION, PHARMACEUTICS AND STORAGE OF HERBAL DRUGS DESCRIBED IN ANCIENT MEDICAL WORKS UNEARTHED IN MAWANGDUI. MA JIXING. journal of traditional chinese medicine. 1981;1(2):149 (eng).
 En 1975, 14 anciens livres médicaux ont été découverts à Mawangdui (tombe n°3 de la dynastie Han à Changsha). Parmi eux 4 traitent des plantes médicinales "recettes pour 52 sortes de maladies", "recettes diverses", "livre d’embryologie et d’obstétriques", "recette pour conserver la santé". Ces livres ont été copiés à la main vers les 3ème ou 2ème siècle avant J.C et enterrés en 163 avant J.C. Ils ont été réalisés à partir de livres originaux écrits vers les 6ème et 4ème siècles avant J.C. Ils présentent un grand intérêt pour l’approche des connaissances pharmacologiques de cette époque. L’article étudie la récolte, la préparation et le conditionnement des plantes.
 
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 [ETUDE SUR LES MERIDIENS ET COLLATERAUX A PARTIR DES LIVRES MEDICAUX ANTIQUES DE LA TOMBE DE MA WANG DUI]. HE ZHONGYU. chinese acupuncture and moxibustion. 1982;2(5):33 (chi*).
 In the light of the author’s research materials and the other scholar’s quotations, the author held that the study on the blood vessels and the channels described in the medical books excavated from Ma Wang Dui Tombs gave a powerful evidence in probing into the essence and origin of the channels and collaterals. The author thought that the essence of the channels and the functional activities was roughly equivalent to the comprehensive composition of the nerves and the blood vessels. This knowledge will further promote the clinical application and principles of acupuncture, acupuncture anesthesia and qigong (breathing exercise).
 
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 [ORIGINE, FORMATION ET PERSPECTIVES DE LA THEORIE DES MERIDIENS]. MENG ZHAO WEI. chinese acupuncture and moxibustion. 1982;2(4):27 (chi*).
 La théorie des méridiens est apparue très précocement dans la Chine antique comme le montrent les recherches sur le PSC et les recherches sur les livres médicaux trouvés dans la tombe de Ma Wang Dui. Au début de la dynastie des Han de l’Ouest, 11 lignes de propagation ont ainsi été découvertes et appelées "collatérales". Durant la période de l’empereur Wu de la dynastie des Han, le mot "Méridiens" est utilisé, et plus tard "Méridiens et collatéraux", la théorie des méridiens et collatéraux est ainsi totalement établie à partir de la dynastie des Han de l’Est (100 A. J.-C. – 200 après J.-C.).
 
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 [NOUVELLE ETUDE DU ZU BI SHI YI MAI JIU JING, TEXTE REDIGE SUR SOIE DECOUVERT DANS LA TOMBE DE MA WANG DUI]. HE ZONGYU. chinese journal of medical history. 1984;14(3):172 (chi).

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 INVESTIGATION ON THE MEDICAL DOCUMENTS EXCAVATED FROM THE MA WANG DUI TOMB AND THE ORIGIN OF THE FORMATION OF THE THEORY OF MERIDIAN. LIU CHENGZHONG. second national symposium on acupuncture and moxibustion,beijing. 1984;:243-4 (eng).

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 [MA WANG DUI DAO YING JIANG SHENG GONG (TYPE DE QIGONG RAPPORTE DANS LES TEXTES, DECOUVERT DANS LA TOMBE DE MA WANG DUI)]. TONG JUN JIE. qigong and science. 1984;5(2):58 (chi).

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 [PHARMACEUTICAL ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE MEDICAL WORKS UNEARTHED FROM HAN TOMB OF MAWANGDUI]. MA JIXING. journal of tcm. 1986;27(5):57-60 (chi).

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 [PHARMACEUTICAL ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE MEDICAL WORKS UNEARTHED FROM HAN TOMB OF MAWANGDUI]. MA JIXING. journal of tcm. 1986;27(6):59-63 (chi).

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 [PHARMACEUTICAL ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE MEDICAL WORKS UNEARTHED FROM THE HAN TOMB OF MAWANGDUI]. MA JIXING. journal of tcm. 1986;27(7):57-9 (chi).

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 [PHARMACEUTICAL ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE MEDICAL WORKS UNEARTHED FROM HAN TOMB OF MAWANGDUI]. MA JIXING. journal of tcm. 1986;27(8):57-61 (chi).

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 [PRELIMINARY STUDY ON ZU BI SHI YI MAI JIU JING, THE SILK WRITING UNEARTHED IN MA WANG DUI]. CHEN GUOQING. chinese journal of medical history. 1987;17(4):242P (chi).

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 COMMENT SE SOIGNAIT-ON EN CHINE IL Y A 2000 ANS ?. HOISEY D. archeologia. 1987;230:26-9 (fra).

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 [RESEARCH ON TIME MEDICINE THOUGHT IN "MA WANG DUI MEDICINE BOOKS"]. HU JIAN-BEI. shanxi journal of traditional chinese medicine. 1989;5(2):8-10 (chi).

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 [ON CONTRIBUTION OF "ELEVEN CHANNELS USED FOR MOXIBUSTION ON THE FOOTS AND UPPER ARMS" TO MOXIBUSTION THERAPY]. WU ZHONGCHAO. jiangsu journal of traditional chinese medicine. 1989;10(12):19-22 (chi).

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 [EXPLORATION ON THE CHRONO-MEDICAL THOUGHTS IN MEDICAL BOOKS UNEARTHED IN MAWANGDUI]. HU JIAN BEI. chinese journal of medical history. 1990;20(2):96-8 (chi*).

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 [ABOUT THE HEALTH PRESERVING THOUGHTS IN THE BOOKS UNEARTHED AT MA WANG DUI]. ZHOU YIMOU. journal of beijing college of traditional chinese medicine. 1990;6:48. (chi*).

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 [TEXTUAL RESEARCH ON WINE LISTED IN PRESCRIPTION OF 52 DISEASES ENEARTHED FROM MAWANGTUI TOMB]. GONG SHIMING. knowledge of ancient medical literature. 1991;2:25 (chi).

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 [ACHIEVEMENT OF TRAUMATOLOGY AND ORTHOPEDICS IN MEDICAL LITERATURE STEMMED FROM MA WANG DUI TOMB]. TAO HUI-NING. chinese journal of traditional medicine traumatology and orthopedics. 1991;7(1):50 (chi).

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 [PRIMARY DISCUSSION ON TIME OF WRITING "TEN QUERIES" RECORDED ON BAMBOO SLABS FROM N° 3 HAN TOMB AT MAWANGDUI]. ZHAO POSHAN. shanghai journal of traditional chinese medicine. 1991;11:38 (chi).

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 LES ARTS THERAPEUTIQUES CHINOIS AU IIIe SIECLE AVANT NOTRE ERE. ROBERT Y. medecine chinoise et medecines orientales. 1992;2:55-66 (fra*).
 The chinese healing arts of the third century BC derived from the manuscripts of Wan Wu, which are contemporary to the medical manuscripts of Mawangdui discovered in 1973. The three treatises presented seem to be complementary sources. The Wan Wu is a pharmaceutical treatise showing that at the beginning of the Han era there were texts indicating precisely the special virtues that the ancient chinese attributed to a particular drug. The Mai Chu 1 treatise of medicine on the meridians contains one of the first glossary of nosology in TCM. The Mai Chu 2 is The Canon of Moxibustion of the eleven Yin-Yang channels of Mawangdui and constitutes one of the main references of therapists. The Mai Chu 3 resembles the two texts of Mawangdui Methods of the channels and the pulses and enables one to reconstitute the pathological symptoms of the pulse and the channels. The Yin Chou is a gymnastic treatise derived explicitly from Peng Tchou, the chinese Mathusalem, one of the masters of the art of immortality.
 
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 [PRELIMINARY DISCUSSION ON COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT VERSIONS OF A SAME MEDICAL BOOK EXCAVATED FROM SHENJIASHAN AND MAWANGDUI TOMBS]. WANG JIANXIN. knowledge of ancient medical literature. 1992;2:19 (chi).

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 [THE DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESS OF THE 12-CHANNEL THEORY AS VIEWED FROM INNER CANON OF YELLOW EMPEROR]. WU MI-MAN. chinese journal of medical history. 1992;22(4):240 (chi*).
 The author investigates the relation between the systematic development of 12 channels in Chapter on Channels, Miraculous Pivot and the 11 channels of Mawangdui silk scroll, striving to explore and elucidate its developmental process and relationship of succession.
 
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 [ON THE NATURE OF "INDUCED DISEASE AND GENERATING DISEASE" BASED ON MOXIBUSTION CANON OF ELEVEN CHANNELS OF YIN-YANG]. ZHAO JINGSHENG. journal of traditional chinese medicine. 1992;33(12):8 (chi).

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 [BRIEF DISCUSSION ON COMMON LOAN-WORDS LISTED IN MAWANGTUI MEDICAL BOOKS]. ZHOU YIMOU. knowledge of ancient medical literature. 1992;3:2 (chi).

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 ASPECTS DE LA MEDECINE CHINOISE AU IIIème SIECLE AVANT NOTRE ERE. ROBERT Y. medecine chinoise et medecines orientales. 1993;7:53-61 (fra).
 Les manuscrits médicaux de Mawangdui sont les textes chinois sur l’art de guérir les plus anciens actuellement connus sous leur forme originale. Aucun de ces manuscrits n’est de facto postérieur au premier tiers du IIème siècle avant notre ère, la tombe où ils furent découverts datant de 168 avant J.C.
 
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 [RESEARCH AND EXPLANATION ON MEDICAL BOOKS FROM HAN TOMB IN MAWANGDUI]. SHI CHANG-YONG. chinese journal of medical history. 1993;23(3):181 (chi*).

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 [RESEARCH AND EXPLANATION ON MEDICAL BOOKS FROM HAN TOMB IN MAWANGDUI]. SHI CHANG-YONG. chinese journal of medical history. 1993;23(3):181 (chi*).

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 [ON PULSE-TAKING DESCRIBED IN MEDICAL BOOKS UNEARTHED FROM MAWANGDUI]. GUAN XIAOGUANG ET AL. jiangsu journal of tcm. 1995;16(12):30 (chi).

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 [INTRODUCTION TO NEUTRAL MEDICAL LITTERATURES UNHEARTHED AT MAWANGDUI]. LI W. journal of traditional chinese medicine. 1995;36(10):624 (chi).

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 [A BRIEF HISTORY OF OSTEO-TRAUMATOLOGY OF THE PRE-QIN PERIOD]. LI ANG. chinese journal of medical history. 1996;26(2):79 (chi*).
 Historical materials from oracle inscriptions to Mawangdui Ancient Books are summarized. Research is made on four aspects, includind recognition of bone, wounds to bone, and bone diseases, osteological treatment by drugs, acu- moxibustion, massage and Daoyin, traumatological medical jurisprudence and prevention of such diseases. This fills the gap left out in the developmental history of osteo-traumatology.
 
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 [DIFFERENTIATION OF ZIYI BENCAO AS AN APOCRYPHA]. ZHIJUN S. chinese journal of medical history. 1996;26(1):54 (chi*).
 It is generally believed that Ziyi Bencao is a book of the pre-Qin period. By studies on several aspects, including ancient bibliographical records, relics unearthed in Mawangdui Han tombs, nomenclature of ancient book titles, the date of appearance of ancient classi
s, contradictions between the time of activities of Bian Que and Ziyi, it is concluded that in the pre-Qin period, there were no classic of herbology of any kind, even less Ziyi Bencao. The Books entitled Ziyi Bencao records in bibliographies after Han Dynasty are all apocryphas made by Han authors.
 
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 SILK SCROLLS: EARLIEST LITERATURE OF MERIDIAN DOCTRINE IN ANCIENT CHINA. CHEN Y. acupunct electrother res. 1997;22(3-4):175-189 (eng ).
 Among the historic relics unearthed from Han Tomb No. 3 at Mawangdui, Changsha, China during 1972-1974, there were two Silk Scrolls related to the acupuncture meridian circulation and its pathologic symptoms. The description was simpler than that in the chapter "On Channels", in the Lin Shu (Miraculous Pivot). Only eleven channels were recorded, with the Pericardium channel left out, but the distribution of the Arm Shaoyin Channel connects to the passageway of the Pericardium channel. In the Silk Scrolls, all the directions of the eleven channels are concentric, there are no connections with each other, and there are fewer pertaining and communicating organs. It is suggested that these Silk Scrolls present a specific meridian theory that predates the Nei Ching (Canon of Medicine).
 
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 [TEXTUAL STUDY AND ANALYSIS ON "THE WAY OF STUDYING VESSELS"]. LIU SHIJING ET AL. chinese journal of medical history. 1997;27(4):198 (chi*).
 "The Way of Studying Vessel", an ancient diagnostic method for vessel disorders in the Pre-Qin period, has been reappeared due to the unearth of "Pulse Method" from Mawangdui, and "Pulso Book" from Zhang jiashan. This paper deals with the application form, the significance and condition of diagnosis of ankle vessels in the Pre-Qin period, elucidates that the original text in Plain Question is derived from this principle, the Way of Studying Vessel". The gradual change of the principle is also dealt with. It also checks the wrong interpretation, by later generations, of "diagnostic method of flicking the ankle". In summary, it claims that "the Way of Studying Vessel" is an early pulse taking la ing a
 
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 [TEXTUAL STUDY AND ANALYSIS ON "THE WAY OF STUDYING VESSELS"]. LIU SHIJING ET AL. chinese journal of medical history. 1997;27(4):198 (chi*).
 "The Way of Studying Vessel", an ancient diagnostic method for vessel disorders in the Pre-Qin period, has been reappeared due to the unearth of "Pulse Method" from Mawangdui, and "Pulso Book" from Zhang jiashan. This paper deals with the application form, the significance and condition of diagnosis of ankle vessels in the Pre-Qin period, elucidates that the original text in Plain Question is derived from this principle, "the Way of Studying Vessel". The gradual change of the principle is also dealt with. It also checks the wrong interpretation, by later generations, of "diagnostic method of flicking the ankle". In summary, it claims that "the Way of Studying Vessel» is an early pulse taking method in ancient time, playing a significant roke in TCM.
 
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 SILK SCROLLS : EARLIEST LITERATURE OF MERIDIAN DOCTRINE IN ANCIENT CHINA. YEMENG CHEN. acupuncture and electrotherapeutics research. 1997;22(3/4):175-89 (eng ).
 Among the historic relics unearthed from Han Tomb No. 3 at Mawangdui, Changsha, China during 1972 – 1974, there were two Silk Scrolls related to the acupuncture meridian circulation and its pathologic symptoms. The description was simpler than that in the chapter "On Channels", in the Lin Shu (Miraculous Pivot). Only eleven channels were recorded, with the Pericardium channel left out, but the distribution of the Arm Shaoyin Channel connects to the passageway of the Pericardium channel. In the Silk Scrolls, all the directions of the eleven channels are concentric, there are no connections with each other, and there are fewer pertaining and communicating organs. It is suggested that these Silk Scrolls present a specific meridian theory that predates the Nei Ching (Canon of Medicine).
 
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 [CONTRIBUTIONS OF MEDICAL BOOKS FROM MAWANGDUI TO PSYCHO-SOMATIC MEDICINE]. CAI TIERU. journal of traditional chinese medicine. 1998;39(5):311-2 (chi ).

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 NEUE ARCHAOLOGISCHE FUNDE ZUR LEITBAHNTHEORIE. ENGELHARDT U. chinesische medizin. 1998;13(3):93-100 (deu*).
 [New archeological findings concerning the conduit theory].This article compares the conduit systems as described in various early archaeological findings and concentrates on a lacquered figure from early Han showing conduits. According to this comparison the conduits developed earlier than the foramina (acupoints). Moreover, it shows that there were very distinct conduit systems, often with a clearly local character, until the presently valid conduit system developed as described first in the 10th section of the Lingshu.
 
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 [BACKGROUND OF SEXUAL SKILL IN THE SILK AND BAMBOO SLIPS FROM MAWANGDUI]. ZHU YUELI. chinese journal of medical history. 1998;28(1):1-6 (chi*). 
 There are many conditions and causes by which the sexual skill recorded in the silk and bamboo slips from Ma wangdui ancient tomb. First, many thinkers and scholars were proficient in keeping good health since the prevailing custom that the aged was held in the great esteem in the Spring-Autumn and Warring States periods of ancient China, and the wide spreading of keeping good health in the whole society gave an impetus to pay attention to sexual skill; Second, the polygamy in the name of monogamy at that time marriage system resulted in the demand of man’s strong and healthy body; Third, the high medical science and pharmacology at that time brought about the produce of the sexual skill by medicine which reached a high level at its initial stage; Last, the theory and technique of the sexual skill embodied the characteristics of Taoist philosophy based in which someone were engaged in experiment and act of creation about sexual skill. As far as social idea is concerned, people’s sex idea was liberal and sound in the Spring-Autumn and Warring States periods, it’s the indispensable condition of produce of the sexual skill recorded in the silk and bamboo slips from Ma wangdui ancient tomb. In addition, some theory and techniques in the sexual skill by medicine and by self-cultivation were full of mystique because of their contact with people’s faith to the immortal.
 
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 SECRETS FROM THE TOMBS-HAN GRAVES AND THE EVOLUTION OF MEDICAL PHARMACOLOGY. COCHRAN WM. pacific journal of oriental medicine. 1999;14:14-21 (eng ).
 Traditional Chinese herbalism has a great antiquity, with incipient botanical therapeutics evident over two millennia ago. The earliest extant evidence comes from the grave of a Han prince dated at 4 April, 168 BCE. Discovered as recently as 1973 in the small village of Mawangdui near Changsha in Hunan Province, the archaeological investigators revealed a rich assemblage of written records pertaining to life in late Zhou and early Han China. From the perspective of pharmacotherapy, the most important yield from the tomb was the medical silk manuscripts, especially the four which contained early data on materia medica. This paper, which I hope will be of interest to both students and practitioners of herbal medicine, will focus on the development of traditional therapeutics, with medical insight often provided by evidence discovered in long forgotten tombs. Silent and untouched for centuries, the graves of departed elites provide valuable evidence for the evolution of the traditional medicine of China, at the same time as establishing an important link with past generations of medical scholars.
 
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 [DISCUSSION ON THE DATE OF APPEATRANCE OF THE LITLE SHEN NONG BEN CAO JING.]. SHANG ZHIJUN. chinese journal of medical history. 1999;29(3):135-38 (chi*).
 It is said, in general literatures, that the title of shen nong teen cao jing appeared in pre-Qin period. It can be negated, through studies on Han shu hi wen zhi ( Biblie – graphies in Book of Han Dynasty), relics unearthed from Han tombs in Mawangdui, the history of nomenclature for ancient books, and the date of appearance of ancient canons, that the said- title first appeared in the pre- Qin period. The name of " teen cao " was first appeared in western Han dynasty. There were officials of necromancer (fan shi) and teen cao in western Han dynasty. During Chengdi Emperor of Han, some seventy such officials were dismissed and returned to their homelands. Pingdi Emperor re- summoned these officials. Several scores of officials responded to the edict, among them, those responsible for teen coo compiled a book on teen cao (herbology) and alleged it to be written by shennong so as to win confidence from the authority and to acquire the official title of teen cao dai zhao (Herbal Attendant) for themselves. It is, therefore, natural that the title of shen nong teen cao jing can only appeared at the time of Herbal Attendant in Western Han.
 
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 ZUR GESCHICHTE DER CHINESISCHEN MEDIZIN. TEIL 4: QIN-UND HAN-ZEIT. DIE ENTWICKLUNG DER THERAPIEFORMEN (221V. CHR-220N. CHR). DESPEUX C. chinesische medizin. 2000;15(4):145-52 (deu*).
 [The history of chinese medicine. Part 4: the era of Qin- and Han- Dynasties (221 BC to 220 AD) – The development of the therapies].In the 4th part of the history of Chinese medicine the author concentrates on the development of acupuncture therapy and phytotherapy as well as with gymnastic exercises practised at the time of the Qin and Han Dynasties (221 BC to 220 AD).First of all, the author presents 2 medical documents found in a Mawangdui grave: "Moxibustion canon of the eleven conduits of the foot and forearm"(Zubi shiyi mai jiujing) and "Moxibustion canon of the eleven Yin and Yang conduits" (Yinyang shiyi mai jiujing), which are considered to date from the 2nd century BC. These works provide information about earlier concepts of the routes of the 11 conduits which have a great deal in common with today’s system of 12 conduits but where only moxibustion was applied. The author compares both Mawangdui texts with the 10th chapter of the "Pivot of structive force" (Lingshu), in which the s. pericardia’s (Pericardium conduit) is complemented in the context with cosmological speculations, the description "cardinal conduits" (jingmai) was first generally used, and the complicated routes of conduits and their directions were first laid down. Following a study of the acupuncture points, which were developed for the most part during the period of the Han Dynasty, there is a brief description of the development of acupuncture needles, originally produced from bones or stone and only used for quasi-surgical interventions. Mention is also made of the almost legendary physician, Bian Que, who is renowned not only for his spectacular therapeutic achievements with needles but also as the founder of pulse palpation. The "Illustration of guiding and pulling" (Daoyintu), which was also found in Mawangdui, with 44 drawings of people in different bodily positions is presented as evidence of the importance of gymnastic exercises in the therapy of a multiplicity of disorders like rheumatic illnesses or diseases of the motoric system. In the final section, the author explains the development of phytotherapy, which has always been the main form of treatment applied throughout the history of Chinese medicine. In his "Treatise on algor laedens (Damaging Cold)" (Shanghan lun) written in the Han Dynasty period, Zhang Zhongjing first formulated the fundamental concepts of phytotherapy and analysed the combination of prescriptions as well as how the form of administration, i. e. pills, decoctions or powders, achieved different effects.
 
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 THE FOUR GREAT SCHOOLS OF THE JIN AND YUAN DYNASTIES. TOMLIN J. pacific journal of oriental medicine. 2000;16:38-45 (eng).
 The history of Chinese herbal medicine encompasses more than I two millennia of recorded tradition. From the written information gathered from the Mawangdui caves (dated at 168 BCE) discovered in 1973 in Hunan Province through the following centuries and up to the present time, a rich historical heritage has been established. Throughout this history, colourful characters, both legendary and historical, ranging through theYellow Emperor, Hua To, Zhang Zhong Jing, Li Don Yuan, Li Shi Zhen and so on, have graced the pages of Chinese medical history books and offered their own writings for the benefit of future generations. Based on a foundation such as this, a strong sense of historical lineage has evolved amongst practitioners of Chinese medicine not only in China itself but also in neighbouring Korea and Japan. Scholars and practitioners of Chinese medicine, rooted in such a lineage, have been able to look to the past for ideas and guidance upon which to base their own understanding and practice of Chinese medicine. Unfortunately, due perhaps to a paucity of translated material; Western practitioners of Chinese medicine have very little understanding or appreciation of this historical lineage, which, potentially, could be a vital guide to the understanding, and treatment of current diseases. In this paper I hope to partially address this concern by providing an overview, unfortunately brief, of four important schools of thought in Chinese medicine that evolved during the Jin end Yuan dynasties, a period stretching from 1115 to 1341 CE.
 
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 ANTIKE CHINESISCHE MEDIZIN: DIE VIELFALT DER DENKSTILE. UNSCHULD PU. deutsche zeitschrift fur akupunktur. 2000;43(1):21-32 (deu*).
 [Ancient chinese medicine: the variety of styls off thought or What do sinology and the history of medicine have to offfer ffor a serious reception of chinese medicine?]. Is to study the history of Chinese medicine a luxury, or will a better knowledge of the past be helpful in attempts to secure a future for acupuncture and traditional Chinese pharmaceutics in the West?.’This paper is based on the hypothesis, developed by the author in view of results of his cross-cultural comparative study of Chinese and Western traditions, that the theoretical background of a medical system of ideas and healih care practices is more decisive lor its acceptance by a population than its clinical successes. Fundamental changes from one system of ideas and practices to a new one, and even major changes within an established system, have never been stimulated by better clinical results but by more convincing ideas. This can be demonstrated in view of both Chinese and Western medical history. I


2 documents pour MANUSCRITS MÉDICAUX DE MA WANG DUI

  • ASPECTS DE LA MEDECINE CHINOISE AU III° SIECLE AVANT NOTRE ERE (I).

    Robert Y. Médecine Chinoise et Médecines Orientales. 1993;7:53-61.Les manuscrits médicaux de Mawangdui sont les textes chinois sur l'art de guérir les plus anciens actuellement connus sous leur forme originale. Aucun de ces manuscrits n'est de facto postérieur au premier tiers du IIème siècle avant notre ère, la tombe où ils furent découverts datant de 168 avant J.C.

  • ASPECTS DE LA MEDECINE CHINOISE AU III° SIECLE AVANT NOTRE ERE (II).

    Robert Y. Médecine Chinoise et Médecines Orientales. 1994;8:57-70.